The city in ancient literature is also known as Marakanda (Marokand) (Greek.).

The modern naming of the city “Samarkand” comes from the Turkic “Semiz kent”, which means “Rich settlement”. This is reported by medieval Chinese sources (referring to Samarkand as “Si-mi-se-kan”, and also explaining what it means “fat city”). The same version was supported by the scientist-encyclopedist Abu Rayhan al-Beruni, the Armenian chronicler of the XIII century Sumbat reported that “Samarkand” means “fat or fat city”; the Spanish ambassador to the court of Tamerlane Rui Gonzalez de Clavijo, famous for describing his journey, writes about Samarkand as “Samarkand”, but stipulates that his real name is “Simeskint”, which means “rich village”.

The history of the most ancient state formations is not the territory of Central Asia, including Sogdiana, until the VI century AD little reflected in historical piles and documents. The information that historians have is semi-legendary. It is only true that from the VI to the IV century BC. e. Central Asian peoples were under the rule of the Persian kings of the Achaemenid dynasty.

“Father of History” Herodotus reports that the ruler of Persia “king of kings” Cyrus turned his hordes to the east of the Caspian Sea and conquered Bactria and Sogd. The conquest of Sogdiana, and in particular, is indirectly evidenced by sources attributing to Cyrus the founding of the city of Kyropyl in the valley of the Syr Darya, near the northern borders of Sogd.

In the Central Asian lands, Cyrus made several campaigns. The last of them for the mighty conqueror ended tragically. According to the story of Herodotus, this invasion of the Achaemenids was directed against the warlike nomadic Massagets, whose leader was a woman named Tomaris. The tribesmen proclaimed her their queen after the death of her husband. Cyrus sent ambassadors to the queen with “flattering words”, proposing to marry him. Tomaris, on the other hand, realizing that Kira’s only desire was to enslave the Massagets, and not accept the Persian ambassadors. Seeing that his cunning failed, Cyrus, devastating the country, moved to the Araks (apparently the Amu Darya River).

Tomaris urged Cyrus to stop the bloodshed. Nevertheless, the Persian king treacherously attacked the Massaget camp. Enraged by this treachery, Tomaris collected her cavalry and marched on the enemy, swearing to water her with the blood of insatiable ahememenid. Herodotus paints in detail the battle, which lasted for many hours. The Persian hordes were defeated. In battle, the mighty Cyrus himself was killed. His head Tomaris ordered to dip in leather fur, filled with still smoking blood, in order to “water” it conqueror.

The fierce struggle of the Central Asian peoples against foreign invaders did not cease throughout the centuries of domination of the Achaemenids. Defending their freedom and independence, the local population showed striking examples of courage. Ancient writer Polyen with great respect tells of the feat of the Saka shepherd Chirac.

When the Persian king Darius I (521-486 BC) invaded the head of a huge army in the steppe nomadic Sakas, the brave Shirak corrupted himself, mutilated his face and, in this form, reached bloodstained Persian camp. He told Darius that his fellow tribesmen had treated him so cruelly and that he was burning with a desire to take revenge.

History

The city in ancient literature is also known as Marakanda (Marokand) (Greek.).

The modern naming of the city “Samarkand” comes from the Turkic “Semiz kent”, which means “Rich settlement”. This is reported by medieval Chinese sources (referring to Samarkand as “Si-mi-se-kan”, and also explaining what it means “fat city”). The same version was supported by the scientist-encyclopedist Abu Rayhan al-Beruni, the Armenian chronicler of the XIII century Sumbat reported that “Samarkand” means “fat or fat city”; the Spanish ambassador to the court of Tamerlane Rui Gonzalez de Clavijo, famous for describing his journey, writes about Samarkand as “Samarkand”, but stipulates that his real name is “Simeskint”, which means “rich village”.

The history of the most ancient state formations is not the territory of Central Asia, including Sogdiana, until the VI century AD little reflected in historical piles and documents. The information that historians have is semi-legendary. It is only true that from the VI to the IV century BC. e. Central Asian peoples were under the rule of the Persian kings of the Achaemenid dynasty.

“Father of History” Herodotus reports that the ruler of Persia “king of kings” Cyrus turned his hordes to the east of the Caspian Sea and conquered Bactria and Sogd. The conquest of Sogdiana, and in particular, is indirectly evidenced by sources attributing to Cyrus the founding of the city of Kyropyl in the valley of the Syr Darya, near the northern borders of Sogd.

In the Central Asian lands, Cyrus made several campaigns. The last of them for the mighty conqueror ended tragically. According to the story of Herodotus, this invasion of the Achaemenids was directed against the warlike nomadic Massagets, whose leader was a woman named Tomaris. The tribesmen proclaimed her their queen after the death of her husband. Cyrus sent ambassadors to the queen with “flattering words”, proposing to marry him. Tomaris, on the other hand, realizing that Kira’s only desire was to enslave the Massagets, and not accept the Persian ambassadors. Seeing that his cunning failed, Cyrus, devastating the country, moved to the Araks (apparently the Amu Darya River).

Tomaris urged Cyrus to stop the bloodshed. Nevertheless, the Persian king treacherously attacked the Massaget camp. Enraged by this treachery, Tomaris collected her cavalry and marched on the enemy, swearing to water her with the blood of insatiable ahememenid. Herodotus paints in detail the battle, which lasted for many hours. The Persian hordes were defeated. In battle, the mighty Cyrus himself was killed. His head Tomaris ordered to dip in leather fur, filled with still smoking blood, in order to “water” it conqueror.

The fierce struggle of the Central Asian peoples against foreign invaders did not cease throughout the centuries of domination of the Achaemenids. Defending their freedom and independence, the local population showed striking examples of courage. Ancient writer Polyen with great respect tells of the feat of the Saka shepherd Chirac.

When the Persian king Darius I (521-486 BC) invaded the head of a huge army in the steppe nomadic Sakas, the brave Shirak corrupted himself, mutilated his face and, in this form, reached bloodstained Persian camp. He told Darius that his fellow tribesmen had treated him so cruelly and that he was burning with a desire to take revenge.

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