Tashkent

The first information about Tashkent is contained in the ancient Eastern chronicles of the II century. BC. e. He was born in the valley of the river Chirchik, on the border of the oasis and steppe as a meeting place for farmers and pastoralists, sedentary population and nomads for joint trade. This ancient oasis had a very advantageous geographical position, where there was a lot of good land and water, and unprofitable political. He was on the border of tribes and states, and many wanted to take this territory to his hands. But the city survived, despite all the trials – wars, invasions and sieges. There are different names of the area – Shashtepa, Chachtepa. In the Middle Ages the city was called Binkent. According to Beruni, this name was ousted by the Turkic “Tashkent” after the conquest by the Turkic-karakhanids of the Samanid state in the late 10th century. Under the name Tashkent, the city is known since the XI century, which presumably means the Stone City (from the Uzbek tosh – ‘stone’).

Then the city survived the Mongol invasion. In the XIV century Tashkent was a part of Temur’s empire, which transferred it to his grandson Ulugbek. In the XVI century the city belonged to the Sheibanids. At the end of the XVI century, Tashkent was included in the Kazakh Khanate, which was part of the pre-XVIII century. At the beginning of the XIX century, Tashkent became the property of the Kokand ruler Alim Khan. Under the Kokand dominion Tashkent was surrounded by a moat and an adobe crenellated wall about 20 km long, with 12 gates. At the end of the XIX century, the city of Tashkent was part of the Russian Empire and was considered the main city of the Syrdarya region and the Turkestan Governor General, as well as the center of the Tashkent district in the Syr Darya region.

Historically, the conditional division of the city into two parts – the old and the new city. The old town was the center of handicraft and commercial life, and the new city – industrial, formed on the site of gardens, fields and dachas. The new part of the city was founded after the capture of the city by Russian troops in 1865; it was separated from the old city by the Anchor channel.

By the beginning of the twentieth century, Tashkent hosted about 200 thousand inhabitants (Uzbeks, Kazakhs, Tatars, Russians, Jews and other nationalities). In the city there were such educational institutions as: a real school, a cadet corps, a women’s gymnasium, a male gymnasium, a teacher’s seminary, a Mariinsky 4-class women’s school, a private women’s gymnasia, two urban 4-class men’s schools, a vocational and technical railway school and parochial schools. At the end of 1914, the Tashkent Military School was organized in Tashkent.

In October 1917, after the transfer of power to a coalition of Bolsheviks and Left SRs, the city became the backbone of Soviet power in the province. In 1918-1924 Tashkent was the capital of the Turkestan ASSR.

During the Great Patriotic War Tashkent became one of the centers of evacuation, where factories, factories, theaters, film studios moved. He sheltered a huge number of refugees among whom there were many outstanding contemporaries.

From 1930 to 1991, Tashkent was the capital of the Uzbek SSR within the USSR and the regional center of the Tashkent region.

History

The first information about Tashkent is contained in the ancient Eastern chronicles of the II century. BC. e. He was born in the valley of the river Chirchik, on the border of the oasis and steppe as a meeting place for farmers and pastoralists, sedentary population and nomads for joint trade. This ancient oasis had a very advantageous geographical position, where there was a lot of good land and water, and unprofitable political. He was on the border of tribes and states, and many wanted to take this territory to his hands. But the city survived, despite all the trials – wars, invasions and sieges. There are different names of the area – Shashtepa, Chachtepa. In the Middle Ages the city was called Binkent. According to Beruni, this name was ousted by the Turkic “Tashkent” after the conquest by the Turkic-karakhanids of the Samanid state in the late 10th century. Under the name Tashkent, the city is known since the XI century, which presumably means the Stone City (from the Uzbek tosh – ‘stone’).

Then the city survived the Mongol invasion. In the XIV century Tashkent was a part of Temur’s empire, which transferred it to his grandson Ulugbek. In the XVI century the city belonged to the Sheibanids. At the end of the XVI century, Tashkent was included in the Kazakh Khanate, which was part of the pre-XVIII century. At the beginning of the XIX century, Tashkent became the property of the Kokand ruler Alim Khan. Under the Kokand dominion Tashkent was surrounded by a moat and an adobe crenellated wall about 20 km long, with 12 gates. At the end of the XIX century, the city of Tashkent was part of the Russian Empire and was considered the main city of the Syrdarya region and the Turkestan Governor General, as well as the center of the Tashkent district in the Syr Darya region.

Historically, the conditional division of the city into two parts – the old and the new city. The old town was the center of handicraft and commercial life, and the new city – industrial, formed on the site of gardens, fields and dachas. The new part of the city was founded after the capture of the city by Russian troops in 1865; it was separated from the old city by the Anchor channel.

By the beginning of the twentieth century, Tashkent hosted about 200 thousand inhabitants (Uzbeks, Kazakhs, Tatars, Russians, Jews and other nationalities). In the city there were such educational institutions as: a real school, a cadet corps, a women’s gymnasium, a male gymnasium, a teacher’s seminary, a Mariinsky 4-class women’s school, a private women’s gymnasia, two urban 4-class men’s schools, a vocational and technical railway school and parochial schools. At the end of 1914, the Tashkent Military School was organized in Tashkent.

In October 1917, after the transfer of power to a coalition of Bolsheviks and Left SRs, the city became the backbone of Soviet power in the province. In 1918-1924 Tashkent was the capital of the Turkestan ASSR.

During the Great Patriotic War Tashkent became one of the centers of evacuation, where factories, factories, theaters, film studios moved. He sheltered a huge number of refugees among whom there were many outstanding contemporaries.

From 1930 to 1991, Tashkent was the capital of the Uzbek SSR within the USSR and the regional center of the Tashkent region.

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